Saturday, 24 March 2012

Bahaya Timah Hitam Plumbum

Lead Toxicity in Pregnancy and Newborns: A Case Report

Authors: Shantanu Rastogi a;  Irina Kats a;  Malka Messner a;  Sushma Nakra a; Warren Seigel a

Published in: journalJournal of Children's Health, Volume 1, Issue 3 July 2003 , pages 355 - 360


In 1991, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended that blood lead levels of 10 µg/dl or more in children be regarded as detrimental to health and that intervention be initiated to reduce blood lead levels in such cases. Lead crosses the placenta throughout pregnancy. Exposure of the fetus to lead affects it and the pregnant state of the mother in a multitude of ways, including an increased risk of abortions and premature labor. We describe a case of high lead levels in a woman with a history of recurrent abortions and her subsequent normal pregnancy and delivery after reduction of the lead levels through education and dietary interventions.

Keywords: lead toxicity; fetus; pregnancy; abortions

Congenital Anomalies in Lead Poisoning.
Accession Number
From the Department of Anatomy, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey 07103
Congenital Anomalies in Lead Poisoning.[Article]
Obstetrics & Gynecology. 41(2):265-269, February 1973.
The effects of lead on chick embryos were analyzed in the present study. Two-day-old embryos were given varying doses of lead acetate (0.005-0.080 mg/egg) and were examined on day 8 of incubation. The LD, was 0.030 nig/egg. The principal malformations observed were: reduced body size, micromelia and twisted limbs, shortened and twisted neck, shortened beak, microplithalmia, ruptured brain and everted viscera. The must common developmental anomalies were retarded growth and neck abnormalities. A positive dose-response relationship was observed. The rate at which malformations develuped increased with increasing doses of lead. The incidence of gross abnormalities among the controls was very low. The results of this study reveal that lead is teratogenic to chick cmbryogenesis.

(C) 1973 The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

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